Katla Volcano, Iceland
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Katla Volcano, Iceland
Katla volcano, located near the southern end of Iceland's eastern volcanic zone, is mostly hidden beneath the Myrdalsjokull icecap, which extends across the top of the photo.
Valley glaciers descend from the summit icecap toward the coastal plain in this aerial view from the SSW.
Explosive eruptions from Katla, among the largest tephra-producers in Iceland during historical time, have frequently been accompanied by damaging jokulhlaups, or glacier-outburst floods.
Katla volcano, located near the southern end of Iceland's eastern volcanic zone, is hidden beneath the Myrdalsjokull icecap.
The subglacial basaltic-to-rhyolitic volcano is one of Iceland's most active and is a frequent producer of damaging jokulhlaups, or glacier-outburst floods.
A large 10 x 14 km subglacial caldera with a long axis in a NW-SE direction is up to 750 m deep.
Its high point reaches 1380 m, and three major outlet glaciers have breached its rim.
Although most historical eruptions have taken place from fissures inside the caldera, the Eldgja fissure system, which extends about 60 km to the NE from the current ice margin towards Grimsvotn volcano, has been the source of major Holocene eruptions.
An eruption from the Eldgja fissure system about 934 AD produced a voluminous lava flow of about 18 cu km, one of the world's largest known Holocene lava flows.
Katla has been the source of frequent subglacial basaltic explosive eruptions that have been among the largest tephra-producers in Iceland during historical time and has also produced numerous dacitic explosive eruptions during the Holocene.
PHOTO SOURCE: Oddur Sigurdsson, 1985 (Icelandic National Energy Authority), courtesy of the Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, used with permission.
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