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Iran Geography 2009
http://www.geographic.org/wfb2009/iran/iran_geography.html
SOURCE: 2009 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

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Location:
Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates:
32 00 N, 53 00 E

Map references:
Middle East

Area:
total: 1.648 million sq km
land: 1.636 million sq km
water: 12,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 5,440 km
border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km

Coastline:
2,440 km; note - Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements or median lines in the Persian Gulf
continental shelf: natural prolongation

Climate:
mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain:
rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Kuh-e Damavand 5,671 m

Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use:
arable land: 9.78%
permanent crops: 1.29%
other: 88.93% (2005)

Irrigated land:
76,500 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
137.5 cu km (1997)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 72.88 cu km/yr (7%/2%/91%)
per capita: 1,048 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:
periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes

Environment - current issues:
air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought; soil degradation (salination); inadequate supplies of potable water; water pollution from raw sewage and industrial waste; urbanization

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
strategic location on the Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz, which are vital maritime pathways for crude oil transport


NOTE: The information regarding Iran on this page is re-published from the 2009 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Iran Geography 2009 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Iran Geography 2009 should be addressed to the CIA.



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This page was last modified 10-Jun-09
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