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Southern Ocean Transportation 2009
https://geographic.org/wfb2009/southern_ocean/southern_ocean_transportation.html
SOURCE: 2009 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

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Southern Ocean Transportation 2009
SOURCE: 2009 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK


Ports and terminals:
McMurdo, Palmer, and offshore anchorages in Antarctica
note: few ports or harbors exist on southern side of Southern Ocean; ice conditions limit use of most to short periods in midsummer; even then some cannot be entered without icebreaker escort; most Antarctic ports are operated by government research stations and, except in an emergency, are not open to commercial or private vessels; vessels in any port south of 60 degrees south are subject to inspection by observers under Article 7 of the Antarctic Treaty; The Hydrographic Committee on Antarctica (HCA), a special hydrographic commission of International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), is responsible for hydrographic surveying and nautical charting matters in Antarctic Treaty area; it coordinates and facilitates provision of accurate and appropriate charts and other aids to navigation in support of safety of navigation in region; membership of HCA is open to any IHO Member State whose government has acceded to the Antarctic Treaty and which contributes resources and/or data to IHO Chart coverage of the area; members of HCA are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, China, Ecuador, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, NZ, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Spain, UK, and US (2007)

Transportation - note:
Drake Passage offers alternative to transit through the Panama Canal


NOTE: The information regarding Southern Ocean on this page is re-published from the 2009 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Southern Ocean Transportation 2009 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Southern Ocean Transportation 2009 should be addressed to the CIA.






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