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DOE's Unconventional Gas Research Programs 1976-1995
SOURCE: U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region






3.1.4. Highlights of Important Results


Between 1976 and 1992, the EGSP catalyzed several innovative industry "firsts" that later became commercial technologies or products. In addition, the EGSP resulted in the acquisition and wide dissemination of an enormous quantity of geologic and production data about Eastern gas shales.

This data led to important new insights into the nature of shale gas reservoirs and the mechanisms behind their production. Highlighted below are the key technology products and E&P methodologies that resulted from the EGSP.

Foam Fracture Technology -- The EGSP was responsible for the first use of nitrogen foam fracture technology in the Devonian Shale in 1975. Prior to this time, shale wells had been explosively stimulated in open-hole well bores (no casing across producing formation) and water fracs had been used to improve production.

Foam fracture stimulation technology allowed sand to be transported by the fracture fluid while simultaneously reducing the volume of water used by 75 to 90 percent as compared to conventional water fracs.

The incremental cost of foam fracs was offset by reduced well cleanup costs and improved productivity. More than 50 cost-shared foam frac demonstrations were conducted with industry during the first four years of the program.

By 1979, foam fracturing was the preferred commercial method of stimulation for Devonian shale gas wells and commercial services were widely available to operators in the eastern United States.

Oriented Coring and Fractographic Analysis -- In 1977 the EGSP carried out the first oriented coring and fractographic analysis of Devonian shale to detect natural fractures.

The use of oriented core was an innovation which allowed not only the detection and location of natural shale fractures, but also allowed for the determination of both fracture azimuth and dip -- key parameters in determining geologic structural trends, gas production mechanisms, reservoir modeling parameters and reservoir anisotropy.

Subsequently, oriented coring and fractographic analysis became commercially available to operators seeking to reduce their risk of drilling underperforming shale wells. Coring techniques developed through the EGSP were also employed in DOE sponsored research related to western tight sands (see Section 3.2). The core analysis techniques developed for identifying natural and core-induced fractures have since been used throughout the US to evaluate low-permeability gas reservoirs.

Devonian Shale Logging Suite -- As part of the EGSP, DOE worked with the well logging service industry to jointly develop an electric downhole well logging suite for air-drilled bore holes, consisting of gamma ray, caliper, compensated density, temperature and noise logs. This suite was developed to permit the determination of lithology and production potential of the shale in air-drilled holes. Most previous logging had required water or mud-filled wellbores, liquids which damaged the permeability of the fluid-sensitive shales. By 1985, a commercially available Devonian well logging suite was being used by industry within the Appalachian Basin.

Role of Adsorption in Devonian Shale Production Mechanism -- The EGSP carried out research that resulted in the recognition of the contribution of absorbed gas and fracture systems to the shale gas production mechanism. Gas desorption data derived from canned samples taken from Devonian shale oriented core collected by the EGSP demonstrated the importance of the desorption mechanism to long-term gas production.

Canned samples from 35 cored wells were used to carry out the first widespread characterization of Devonian shale gas content and to prepare gas resource estimates based on a much improved fundamental understanding of the nature of the shale reservoir rock. Widespread industry knowledge of the role of absorbed gas and the accompanying mechanism for gas flow through a network of interconnected natural fractures permitted the development of more accurate production models that incorporated dual porosity/dual permeability fluid flow in the reservoir. This in turn resulted in better tools for reserve estimates and economic decision-making by industry. The early development of dual porosity reservoir models also paved the way for later work in support of similar models for coalbed methane production.

Downhole Video -- The EGSP carried out the first use of a downhole video camera in the history of U.S. oilfield operations. DOE began the use of downhole video by designing and testing a downhole underwater camera for viewing the wellbore of a Devonian shale well in Ohio, in an effort to identify fractures contributing to gas flow. The service company contractor subsequently opened an office in Ohio and developed a commercial downhole camera service. By 1981, downhole video camera services had been commercialized in the eastern U.S. with multiple companies operating in Ohio, Kentucky and West Virginia.

Large-scale Massive Hydraulic Fracturing -- The EGSP introduced large-scale Massive Hydraulic Fracturing (MHF) to the Eastern Devonian shale marketplace. This type of stimulation, used to place large volumes of sand proppant into the shale formation to lengthen the induced fracture length and increase connectivity with the gas-bearing natural fracture system within the shale, had not previously been employed for stimulating shale wells. By 1990, commercialization of MHF stimulation allowed industry to recognize the benefits of such large scale stimulations in targeted shale areas.

Directional Drilling to Improve Productivity -- In 1975, a pre-EGSP DOE-industry collaborative effort resulted in the first Appalachian Basin high-angle Devonian shale directional well in Mingo County, WV (ultimate inclination of 43 degrees). This was followed up in 1978 with the first EGSP Devonian shale high-angle directional well, a joint well in the Cottageville gas field, Jackson County, WV (ultimate inclination of 52 degrees).

Again, in 1986, DOE and industry partners drilled the first air-drilled horizontal well Devonian shale well in Wayne County, WV, having a total horizontal displacement of 3,186 feet from vertical at a measured depth of 6,020 feet.

Among a number of other "firsts" this well also recorded the first recovery of core from a horizontal, air-drilled Devonian shale well, the first horizontal well where external casing packers (ECP's) were successfully installed and inflated in an air-filled wellbore, and the first horizontal well to complete seven individual hydraulically fractured intervals. In 1989 and 1990, three additional DOE/industry jointly-sponsored Devonian shale horizontal wells were drilled and completed: a 1,789-foot horizontal well (measured depth of 6,399 feet) in Putnam Co., WV, a 1,985-foot horizontal well (measured depth of 6,263 feet) in Martin Co., KY, and a 1,617-foot horizontal well (measured depth of 5,013 feet) in Calhoun Co., WV.

These cost-shared demonstration wells identified the technical barriers to widespread application of underbalanced horizontal drilling in the United States.

DOE's follow-on R&D programs continued to develop new underbalanced vertical and horizontal drilling products and formed the basis of its leadership role in underbalanced drilling.

Electromagnetic Measurement-While-Drilling -- Wells drilled as part of the EGSP saw the first use of electromagnetic measurement while drilling (EM/MWD), where it was introduced as a method for steering downhole motors during drilling of a Devonian shale horizontal well. Initial runs were encouraging and resulted in further tool development.

More than 13 field tests of EM/MWD were conducted during and after the EGSP program and the tools were used commercially in the US mid-continent and west coast as well as in western Canada. Based on this success, DOE's subsequent Natural Gas Supply R&D program continued to fund the research from 1992 to 1998.

Carbon Dioxide Fracture Treatment -- The very end of the EGSP saw the first successful use of CO2/Sand stimulation in Devonian shale wells; a technology introduced into the United States by this program.

A total of five CO2/Sand well stimulations were executed for two operators in Perry and Pike counties, KY.

These tests were funded by the EGSP program in 1991/1992. CO2/Sand stimulation subsequently became one of the stimulation options used in the San Juan Basin on a commercial basis.

Other equally important results of the EGSP that increased the knowledge base related to the Devonian shales and aided in subsequent exploration for and development of this vital energy source include the following:

  • Methods for geologic integration of well logs, core data, geophysical survey results, and remote sensing interpretations into a suite of E&P tools for identifying organic source rocks and detecting enhanced fracture density in the Devonian shales.
  • Basic knowledge gained from the collection of 25,000 feet of oriented core from more than 35 wells and the geochemical, fracture characterization, and detailed lithological analyses carried out on the core.
  • More than 120 detailed maps and cross sections provided to industry as part of the first detailed descriptions of the distribution of high organic content, gas-productive, fractured shales over a large portion of the Appalachian Basin. Structural and stratigraphic maps provided information on the influence that deep basement faulting and tectonics had on the location of shallower faults and fracturing. Present day stress orientations and stress ratios were mapped to identify areas of greatest gas production potential. These data were assembled through an integrated effort of the oil and gas industry, State geological surveys, USGS and DOE contractor efforts. Studies were extended to include organic shales in the Illinois and Michigan Basins.
  • As a result of detailed Devonian shale structure mapping during the EGSP, a northeast-southwest structural fold (anticline) was found in southwestern New York. This trend, which was subsequently extended through northwestern Pennsylvania and into northeast Ohio, is a highly productive, faulted limestone trend (termed the Bass Island trend) located stratigraphically below, but unassociated with, the Devonian shale. Without the detailed structural mapping carried out by the EGSP, this productive oil and gas trend may not have been located.
  • An extensive bibliography related to Devonian shale gas exploration activities in the Appalachian, Michigan and Illinois Basins that was made available to industry through NETL and the state geological surveys.
  • A methodology was developed for integrating data that facilitates interpretation of the history of a basin's development and the potential of the sediments and organic matter to produce petroleum and natural gas. The result, a better understanding of when gas and oil are generated and the geometry of the basin when these fluids migrate, allows industry to identify the areas of highest potential for gas trapping mechanisms as targets for development.
  • Knowledge of Devonian shale production mechanisms developed as part of the EGSP was useful to operators developing the Barnett and Lewis shale resources during the decade following the EGSP.


The DOE was asked to quantify the overall benefits of the EGSP as inputs to the National Research Council report titled "Energy Research at DOE: Was It Worth It? Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research 1978 to 2000" published in 2001. Estimates were calculated for three time periods - the 1978 to 1992 period when the program was active; the 1993 to 1998 period for which data on impacts are available; and, the 1999 to 2020 period based on a projection using the EIA/NEMS natural gas model. The benefit measures used are - annual gas production, additional supplies of natural gas and new well drilling.

The baseline starting point was 1978 with a declining Appalachian Basin shale production industry providing 70 Bcf of annual production, drilling 200 wells per year, and holding a reserve base of 1,000 Bcf. Based on analogs with other natural resource R&D programs (such as the benefits study by GRI's R&D program on coalbed methane in the San Juan and Warrior basins), the DOE EGSP was allocated responsibility for 50 percent of the impact and benefits in the Appalachian Basin during Periods 1 and 2, and 25 percent of the impact during Period 3. This approach considered not only the production that would have occurred in the absence of the program, but also production induced by the existence of Section 29 tax credits under the Natural Gas Policy Act, and incremental production resulting from the R&D activities of the Gas Research Institute.

The knowledge base and technologies developed by the EGSP found ready application in other domestic gas shale basins (e.g., the DOE R&D program undertook the initial R&D effort in the Antrim Shale of the Michigan Basin, which was subsequently pursued by GRI and industry). As a result, the DOE R&D program was allocated responsibility for 10 percent of the impact and benefits in other gas shale basins.

These assumptions resulted in an estimated impact resulting from the EGSP of an incremental 4.17 Tcf in gas supply, 7.83 Tcf in proven reserves and 10,600 wells drilled over the 1978-2020 time period. One of the benefits attributable to the additional gas supplies are the state and federal tax revenues received from the sale of the gas. The dollar value of the benefits from state and federal tax revenue of the EGSP was calculated at $1,040 to $2,080 million using a conservative value of $0.25 to $0.50 per Mcf for the additional gas supplies. Using the total cost of $92 million, the undiscounted benefit/cost ratio would be 10:1 to 20:1, based on incremental tax revenue alone. At current gas prices, the revenue impacts and benefit/cost ratio would be considerably greater. In addition, DOE estimated over $8 billion in consumer savings due to lower gas prices. > National Research Council report found that,
    "The EGSP was responsible for bringing together and integrating a significant amount of scattered data on the Eastern gas shales critical to a solid assessment of the resource base. Such an assessment was, as is always the case, necessary for the optimum deployment of technology. Although the in-place shale gas resource base in the United States is large, it is marginal and produced in relatively small increments. At the time ERDA, and later DOE, began the program in the Eastern gas shales, the conventional wisdom was that any significant expansion of production would require relatively high gas prices and that technology in these formations could do little to substitute for high prices.

    But incentives through tax credits, combined with optimum deployment of advanced technology, served to revive a domestic gas province in decline. In a significant way, technology can and does substitute for price in marginal resources, and the Eastern Gas Shales program proved that critical point."
Table 3.1.1 provides a list of key reports that contain the most important results associated with EGSP research projects.

Table 3.1.1: List of Major Research Reports for Eastern Gas Shales Program (1976-1992).

Also available in ..

Title
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Authors
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Organization
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Date
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A Geostatistical (Kriging) Study of Geological and Gas Production Data from West Virginia Mao, N. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 1986 Jan
A Preliminary Assessment of the Natural Gas Potential of the New Albany Shale Group in Illinois. Cluff, Robert M. ILGS 1979 Oct
A Statistical Analysis of Geochemical Data for the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field. Cheng, Jean WVU Dept of Geol. & Geog 1980 Mar
A Study of Stress in Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Plateau (Final Report) Evans, K.F., Engelder, T. Schlumberger-Doll Research, Exxon 1987 Jul
Amex-Vescorp Phase 1 Report, Eastern Gas Shales Project, Eastern Gas Shales Project. Amex-Vescorp 1977 Jan
Analysis of Devonian Shale Gas Production Mechanisms (Application to Devonian Shales of Ohio) Lewin and Assoc. 1983 Jan
Analysis of Devonian Shale Production Mechanisms Lewin and Assoc. 1982 Sep
Analysis of Fracturing Mechanisms in Naturally Fractured Rocks (Final Report) Blanton, T.L., Thompson, T.W., Mann, K.L., Zeigler, B. J. Science Applications International Corp. 1987 Aug
Analysis of Fracturing Mechanisms in Naturally Fractured Rocks (Final Report) Blanton, T.L., Thompson, T.W., Mann, K.L., Zeigler, B. J. Science Applications International Corp. 1987 Aug 5
Analysis of Gas Production for Eastern Gas Shales, Phase II Final Report. Intercomp Resource Development and Engineering, Inc. 1979 Nov
Analysis of Gas Production From Eastern Gas Shales, Phase 1 Final Report, Intercomp Resource Development and Engineering, Inc. 1979 Apr
Analysis of Structural geological Parameters that Influence Gas Production from the Devonian Shale of the Appalachian Basin. Shumaker, R.C.; Kirk, K.G.; Nuckols, E.B.; Long, B.R. (WVU) West Virginia Geological Survey and West Virginia University 1977
Analysis of the Devonian Shales in the Appalachian Basin (Vol 1) Cliffs Minerals, Inc. 1982 Sep
Analysis of the Devonian Shales in the Appalachian Basin (Vol 2 Appendices) Cliffs Minerals, Inc. 1982 Sep
Assessment of Michigan Basin Shale Characterization Research and Results (Final Report) Science Applications, Inc. Science Applications, Inc. 1979 Jul 3
Atlas of Upper Devonian/Lwr Mississippian Sandstones in the Subsurface of West Virginia Boswell, R.M., Jewell, G.A. WV Geological Survey 1988
Characterization and Analysis of Devonia Shales as Related to Release of Gaseous Hydrocarbons, (multiple reports for individual EGSP wells) Kalyoncu, R.S.; Boyer, J.P.; Snyder, M.J. Battelle Columbus Laboratories 1979
Characterization and Hydrocarbon Resource Appraisal of Middle and Upper Devonian Shales in New York. New York Geological Survey 1980 Oct
Characterization and Resource Assessment of the Devonian Shales in the Appalachian and Illinois Basins. Zielinski, Ronald E.; Nance, Steven W. Mound Facility 1979 Oct
Chemical Composition and Geochemistry of the New Albany Shale Group (Devonian-Mississippian) in Illinois Frost, J.K., Zierath, D.L., Shimp, N.F. Illinois State Geological Survey 1985 Oct
Chemical Explosive Fracturing of Devonian Shale Gas Wells. LaRocca, S.J.; Spencer A.M. Petroleum Technology Corporation 1978 Jun
Chemical Explosive Fracturing, Devonian Shale and Canyon Sands, Final Report. Petroleum Technology Corporation Petroleum Technology Corporation 1979 Dec
Cliffs Minerals Core Reports (multiple reports, Phases 1, 2 and 3 for each EGSP well) Cliffs Minerals 1980-1982
Comparative Analysis of Stimulations in the Eastern Gas Shales Horton, A.I. DOE-METC 1981
Fracturing in Two Ohio Devonian Shale Gas Wells. Frohne, K-H MERC, 1976 Feb
Completion and Stimulation of Five NYSERDA wells, Allegany and Cattaraugus Co.'s, NY (Final Report) Rdissi, A. Gruy Federal, Inc. 1981 Nov
Coordination of Study of the Devonian Black Shales in the Illinois Basin. Illinois Geological Survey 1978 Jun
Current Investigation of Devonian Shale by the U.S. Geological Survey. DeWitt, Wallace USGS 1976 Oct
Defining Organic Rich Facies in the Devonian Shale in the Western Part of the Appalachian Basin. Schmoker, James W. 1980 Oct
Depositional Model for the Devonian-Mississippian Black-Shale Sequence of North America: A Tectono-Climatic Approach. Ettensohn, Frank R., Barron, Lance S. 1981 Jan
Development of Rationale for Stimulation Design in the Devonian Shale. Komar, C.A. MERC 1978 Jun
Devonian Black Shale Study of Kentucky, Contract No. EW-78-S- 21-8215 Final Report. Beard, John KYGS and U. KY 1978 Oct
Devonian Shales of Ohio and Their Eastern and Southern Equivalents. Schwietering, Joseph F. WVGS METC/CR-79/2 1979 Jan
Directional Drilling for Extraction of Devonian Shale Gas Lewin and Assoc. prepared by Lewin and Assoc. for METC. No document number 1985 Apr 30
Drilling a Directionally Deviated Well to Stimulate Gas Production from a Marginal Reservoir in Southern WVA Overby, W.K., Ryan, W.M. MERC 1976 Jul
Drilling of a Deviated Well Rodgers, J.A. Gruy Petroleum Tech. Inc. 1982 Sep 30
Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP) Data Files: A Final Report. Dyman, Thaddeus S. USGS 81-598 1981 Oct
Eastern Gas Shales Subprogram (Topical Report) DOE-METC DOE-METC 1984 Feb
Economic Analysis of Foam Fracturing in the Devonian Shales, Preliminary Report. Liebenthal, A.; Komar, C.A.; Rieke, H.H.; Skillern, C.R. SPE/AIME, SPE 8738 1979 Oct
Effectiveness of Hydraulic Fracturing Treatments in the Devonian Shale. Yost II, Albert B, METC 1978 Jun
EGSP Study of the Upper Devonian Shale in Ohio. Ohio Geological Survey DE-AS05-76MCO5200 1979 Oct
Estimates of the Unconventional Natural Gas Resources of the Devonian Shale of the Appalachian Basin USGS 1982
Evaluation of Devonian Shale Potential in Eastern Kentucky/Tennessee TetraTech, Inc. Tetra Tech, Inc. DOE/METC- 121 1981
Evaluation of Devonian Shale Potential in Michigan Basin. TetraTech, Inc. Tetra Tech, Inc. DOE/METC- 123 1981
Evaluation of Devonian Shale Potential in New York TetraTech, Inc. Tetra Tech, Inc. DOE/METC- 118 1981
Evaluation of Devonian Shale Potential in Ohio TetraTech, Inc. Tetra Tech, Inc. DOE/METC- 122 1981
Evaluation of Devonian Shale Potential in Pennsylvania TetraTech, Inc. Tetra Tech, Inc. DOE/METC- 119 1981
Evaluation of Devonian Shale Potential in the Illinois Basin. TetraTech, Inc. 124
Evaluation of Devonian Shale Potential in West Virginia. TetraTech, Inc. Tetra Tech, Inc. DOE/METC- 120 1979
Evaluation of Fracturing Methods for the Stimulation of Devonian Shale in Northern Ohio Smith, E.C., Forrest, R.M., Morse, W.F. Columbia Gas System Service Corp. 1982 Feb
Evaluation of Sites of Intersections of Linear Features in Relation To Yileds of Gas and Water from Wells O'Neil, C.E., Anderson, T.H. Uninversity of Pittsburgh 1984 Aug
Evaluation of Stimulation Technologies in the Eastern Gas Shales Project. Young, Chapman Science Applications, Inc. 1979 Oct
Evaluation of the Devonian Shale Prospects in the Eastern United States Struble, R.A. USDOE no date
Extraction Technology Development in the EGSP Komar, C.A. DOE-METC
Field and Laboratory Procedures for Oriented Core Analysis of Devonian Shales. Byrer, C.W., Komar, C.A. MERC 1977 Aug
Final Report of Special Geological, Geochemical, and Petrological Studies of the Devonian Shales in the Appalachian Basin. Potter, Paul Edwin; Maynard, J. Barry; Pryor, Wayne A. 1980 Jan
Final Report on Geochemical Studies in Eastern Kentucky. deWys, Jane Negus 1981 Apr
Final Report, Modeling of Devonian Shale Gas Reservoirs, Contract DE-AT21-78-MC08216, Task 16. Science Applications, Inc. 1980 Jul
Gas Production of Devonian Shale Wells Relative to Photo Lineament Locations: A Statistical Analysis. Howard, J.F.; Lahoda, S.J.; Zirk, W.E.; Komar, C.A. METC, METC/CR-79/28 1979 Apr
GeoChem reports for EGSP wells (multiple reports) Mound Lab 1981
Geochemical Evaluation of the Eastern Gas Shales-Part I. McIver, Richard D.; Zielinski, Ronald E. 1978 Sep
Geologic & Geochemical Studies of the New Albany Shale Group (Devonian Mississippian) in Illinois. Bergstrom, R.E., Shimp, N.F., Cluff, Robert 1980 Jun
Geomorphology of Portions of Western Kentucky and Adjacent Areas (Topical Report) Dilamarter, R.C. Western Kentucky University, University of Michigan 1982 Jul
Hydraulic Fracturing and Associated Stress Modeling for the Eastern Gas Shales Project (Final Report) Advani, S.H. Ohio State University 1980 Dec
Hydraulic Fracturing Experiments in Devonian Shale and Pre- Fractured Hydrostone (Final Report) Blanton, T.L. Science Applications, Inc. 1981 Sep 30
Importance and Control of Hydraulic Fracture Containment in Shale Well Stimulation Young, C., Barbour, T. Science Applications, Inc. 1979 May
Inorganic Geochemistry of Devonian Shales in Southern West Virginia: Final Report. Hohn, Michael Ed.; Neal, Donald W.; Renton, J.J. WVGS 1980 Jun
Inorganic Geochemistry of Devonian Shales in Southern West Virginia: Geographic and Stratigraphic Trends. Hohn, Michael Ed.; Neal, Donald W.; Renton, J.J. WVGS 1980 Apr
Integrated Program to Identify and Test Devonian Shale Prospect in Dually Completed Wells, Northern Appalachian Basin (Part I) Tetra Tech, Inc. Tetra Tech, Inc.
Integrated Study of the Devonian-Age Black Shales of Eastern Ohio. Struble, Richard A. OHGS 1979 Oct
Interrelationships of Photolineaments, Geological Structures and Fracture Production of Natural Gas in the Appalachian Plateau of West Virginia. Werner, Eberhard West Virginia Univ., Dept of Geology and Geography 1977 Oct
Isolation of Kerogen from Eastern Gas Bearing Shale. Edward METC 1978 Jul
Large Scale Foam Fracturing in the Devonian Shale-A Field Demonstration in West Virginia. Frohne, K-H MERC 1977 Apr
Lineaments and Ground-Water Quality as Exploration Tools for Ground Water and Gas in the Cottageville Area of Western West Virginia. Jones, D. Scott, Rauch, Henry W. WVU Dept of Geol. & Geog. 1978
Massive Hydraulic Fracturing Experiments of the Devonian Shale in Lincoln County, West Virginia. Cremean, S. P.; Forrest, R. M.; McKetta, S.F.; Morse, M.F.; Owens, G.L.; Smith, E.C. GSSC METC/CR-79/17 1979 Sep
Material Properties of Devonian Shale for Stimulation Development Blanton, T.L., Young, C., Patti, N.C. Science Applications, Inc. 1980 Oct
Mechanical Properties of Devonian Shales from the Appalachian Basin Blanton, T.L., Young, C., Patti, N.C. Science Applications, Inc. 1981 Sep
Multizone Completion Opportunities in the Appalachian Basin (Final Report) Koziar, G. Columbia Gas System Service Corp. 1989 Mar
Numerical Model Developments for Stimulation Technologies in the Eastern Gas Shales Project Barbour, T.G., Maxwell, D.E., Young, C. Science Applications, Inc. 1980 Jan
Parameter Sensitivity Analysis of Tailored-Pulse Loading Stimulation of Devonian Gas Shale Barbour, T.G., Mihalik, G.R. Science Applications, Inc. 1980 Nov
Physical and Chemical Characterization of Devonian Gas Shale. Monsanto Research Facility DE-AC04-76DP00053
Practical Aspects of Foam Fracturing in the Devonian Shale. Komar, C.A.; Yost II, A.B.; Sinclair, A.R. USDOE/METC Maurer Engineering SPE/AIME, SPE 3845 1979 Sep
Prediction of In-Situ Stresses for Directional Properties of Rock Cores for Field Development of Devonian Shales. Peng, Syd S., Okubo, Seisuke 1978 Jul
Price/Supply Study for the Eastern Gas Shales (Phase 1 Report) Lewin and Associates, Inc. 1982 Sep
Quantitative Analysis of the Economically Recoverable Resource Pulle, C.V. , Seskus, A. P. Science Applications, Inc. 1981 May
Re-Completion in the Devonian Shale (Final Report) Mitchell Energy Corporation 1985 Mar
Reservoir Model Analysis and Validation, 2-D Model with Induced Fracture Vol. 1 (Final Report) Science Applications, Inc. Science Applications, Inc. 1981 Jul 31
Resource and Exploration Assessment of Oil and Gas Potential in the Devonian Gas Shales of the Appalachian Basin Zielinski, R.E., and McIver, R.D. USDOE/METC 1982
Review of OTA Assessment of Gas Potential from Devonian Shales Cremean, S.P. Columbia Gas System Service Corp. 1977 Aug 19
Shale Gas in the Southern Central Area of New York State (Vol. 1) NYSERDA NYSERDA 1981 Sep
Shale Gas in the Southern Central Area of New York State (Vol. 2) Experience of Locating and Drilling Four Shale-Gas Wells in NY Donohue, D., Morrill, D. Donohue Anstey and Morrill for NYSERDA 1981 Apr
Shale Gas in the Southern Central Area of New York State (Vol. 3) Experience of Drilling Five Shale-Gas Wells in NY Lynch, R. Arlington Exploration Co. 1983 Mar
Shallow Seismic Investigations of Devonian Shale Gas Production Williams, R.T., Ruotsala, J.E., Kudla, J.J., Dunne, W.E. West Virginia University 1982 Jun
Some Results of EGSP of Interest to Illinois Basin Operators Howard, J.F.; Lahoda, S.J.; Zirk, W.E.; Komar, C.A. Howard and Assoc., Inc. 1978 Jun
Stimulation Research on Appalachian Tight Formations (Vol. 3, Appendix D. Final Report) Columbia Gas System Service Corp. Columbia Gas System Service Corp. 1980 May
Stimulation Research on Appalachian Tight Formations (Vol. I) Cook, L.S., et al Corp. 1980 May
Stimulation Research on Appalachian Tight Formations (Vol. II, App. A,B,C)) Cook, L.S., et al Columbia Gas System Service Corp. 1980 May
Stimulation Technology Development in the Eastern Gas Shales Project (Progress Review) Komar, C.A., Frohne, K- H, Yost, A.B. DOE-METC 1978 Feb
Strataspecific Geochemical Trend Maps for Eastern Kentucky Negus-de Wys, J. West Virginia University 1981 Jan
Strategy for Stimulation Technology in The Devonian Shale. Komar, C.A. METC 1979 Oct
Stratigraphic and Geographic Distribution of Core in Black Shale Sequence (Mississippian and Devonian) in Appalachian Basin. Kepferle, Roy c., Potter, Paul Edwin USGS and U. CIN 1978 Mar
Stratigraphy and Sedimentology of Radioactive Devonian- Mississippian Shales of the Central Appalachian Basin. Provo, Linda J.; Potter, Paul Edwin; Maynard, J. Barry; Cin, U. 1976 Dec
Stratigraphy of the Chattanooga Shale in the Newman Ridge and Clinch Mountain Areas, Tennessee. Milici, Robert C.; Roen, John B. TNGS 1980 Oct
Stress Trajectory and Advanced Hydraulic Fracture Simulations for the Eastern Gas Shales Project (Final Report) Advani, S.H., Lee, J.K. Ohio State University 1983 Jul
Structural Geology of the Moorman Syncline Area of Western Kentucky (Topical Report) Shumaker, R.C. West Virginia University, University of Michigan 1982 Jul
Studies of the New Albany Shale (Devonian and Mississippian) and Equivalent Strata in Indiana Hasenmueller, N.R., Woodard, G.S. Indian Geological Survey 1981 Sep
Study of Hydrocarbon-Shale Interaction. P. Schettler Juniata College
Shales in West Virginia. Patchen, Douglas G. 1977 Mar
SUGAR Ver. 3.00 Users Manual (Vol. III) Science Applications, Inc. Science Applications, Inc. 1981 Jul 31
SUGAR-MD Ver. 2.00 Users Manual (Vol. II) Science Applications, Inc. Science Applications, Inc. 1981 Jul 31
Technical Report, Chemical Explosive Fracturing, Devonian Shale Kentucky. LaRocca, S.J., Spencer, A.M. PTC 1977 Jul
Technically Recoverable Devonian Shale Gas in Kentucky. Kuuskraa, Sedwick, Thompson, Wicks Lewin and Assoc. 1985
Technically Recoverable Devonian Shale Gas in Ohio Kuuskraa, V.A., and Wicks, D.E. Lewin 1983 Jul
Technically Recoverable Devonian Shale Gas in West Virginia Kuuskraa, V.A.; Wicks, D. Lewin 1984 Dec
The Application of Core and Log Data to Determine Producible Hydrocarbon Intervals in the Devonian Shale. Yost, A.B. II; Karl-Heinz Frohne, Komar, Charles A.; METC; Ameri, S. WVU College of Engineering SPE/AIME, SPE 9271 1980 Oct
The Concept of Specific Degasbility and its Application to the Gas-Bearing Tight Formations as Represented by the Devonian Shales of Appalachia. Schettler, Paul D. Jr. Juanita College 1979 Oct
The Cottageville (Mount Alto) Gas Field, Jackson county, West Virginia: A Case Study of Devonian Shale Gas Production. Nuckols, E.B. III WVU Dept of Geol. & Geog. 1979 Dec
The Occurrence of Oil and Gas in Devonian Shales and Equivalents in West Virginia. Schietering, Joseph F. WVGS 1981 Mar


These reports, as well as a number of other associated technical notes, interim reports, topical reports and proceedings have been collected on the accompanying CD.

Table 3.1.2 lists the status of logs and core reports associated with the Devonian shale wells drilled as part of the EGSP.

Table 3.1.2: List of Core Reports Associated With EGSP Wells.

Table 3.1.2: List of Core Reports Associated With EGSP Wells.

Table 3.1.2: List of Logs Associated With EGSP Wells.



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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page

Executive Summary

1. Background

2. GRI Research into Unconventional Gas Resources

3. Structure of the Enhanced Gas Recovery Program (EGR)

  • 3.1. Eastern Gas Shales Program (1976-1992)

  • 3.1.1. Key Questions and Related R&D Goals
  • 3.1.2. Program Design and Overview of Major Projects
  • 3.1.3. Key Eastern Gas Shales Projects
  • 3.1.4. Highlights of Important Results
  • 3.1.5. Subsequent Developments in DOE and Other Research Related to Eastern Gas Shales

  • 3.2. Western Gas Sands Program (1978-1992)

  • 3.2.1. Key Questions and Related R&D Goals
  • 3.2.2. Program Design and Overview of Major Projects
  • 3.2.3. Key Western Gas Sands Projects
  • 3.2.4. Highlights of Important Results
  • 3.2.5. Subsequent Developments in DOE Research Related to Tight Gas Sands

  • 3.3. Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Program (1978-1982)

  • 3.3.1. Key Questions Related to Coal Seam Methane
  • 3.3.2. MRCP Program Design and Overview
  • 3.3.3. Key Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Projects
  • 3.3.4. Highlights of Important Results
  • 3.3.5. Subsequent Research Related to Methane Recovery from Coalbeds

  • 3.4. Deep Source Gas Project (1982-1992)

  • 3.4.1. Key Deep Source Gas Projects
  • 3.4.2. Highlights of Important Results

  • 3.5. Methane Hydrates Program (1982-1992)

  • 3.5.1. Methane Hydrates Workshop (March 1982)
  • 3.5.2. Key Questions and Related R&D Goals
  • 3.5.3. Program Design
  • 3.5.4. Major Contracted Gas Hydrates Projects
  • 3.5.5. Methane Hydrate Research Efforts of METC's In-House Organization
  • 3.5.6. Highlights of Important Results
  • 3.5.7. Subsequent Developments in Methane Hydrate Research

  • 3.6. Secondary Gas Recovery (1987-1995)

  • 3.6.1. Key Objectives and Program Design
  • 3.6.2. Major Projects
  • 3.6.3. Major Results

    4. Elements of Spreadsheet Bibliographies (by Program)

    Appendix A: Details of Major 1970-1980 Unconventional Gas Resource Assessments


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